Caching is a performance mechanism where you store an expensive-to-create value for future consumption. For example, you may cache dropdown values to spare yourself expensive database hits. Caching is one of those buzzwords that everyone knows your application should have, but surprisingly few really do.
Books have been written on caching, so this is just a quick brain dump based on my personal experiences. Also note that I refer to "the database" a lot because it's the main data dependency that most developers can relate to, but really, it could be anything (web service, external file, etc...).
Frontend and Backend Caching
|Where is it located?||Local (in process)||Remote (external machines)|
|Pro||Faster because it's local - no remote hit||Handles updating stale data in distributed systems |
Handles any CLR serializable object, independent of the UI layer.
|Con||Does not handle updating values - data may be stale |
Limited to just HttpContext.
|Slower because it's remote - you still need to pay for the remote hit.|
|Example||Asp.Net HttpContext.Cache||Memcache, Velocity, others...|
Obvious follow-up question: "Would you double cache something, taking data from the backend cache and saving it to the fronend cache?" Sure, if it benefited your specific scenario. Ideally the backend cache is totally encapsulated anyway, so your frontend UI developer wouldn't even know if the data they're working with came from a cache or not.
What is a good candidate for caching?
Any data that:
- Takes a lot of time to create, either due to a remote hit (to a database or web service), or a large calculation time (like querying a million rows).
Has a small final result - you query a million rows just to return a single value.
Does not change - the problem with caching is stale data.
Has minimal dependencies. If your object touches 10 tables for creation, then there's a much greater chance of it becoming stale. This is one benefit of loosely coupled (and then batched) objects, instead of spaghetti code.
Has many reads, but very few writes. For example, system-level data (that everyone constantly requests) is good for caching, but employee-level data may not be.
Is retrieved externally and requires high uptime - for example you make a web service call to get some value, you call the service again 5 minutes later, the service is down, and you really wish you had even a "stale" copy of that data.
The canonical example would be something like city-state dropdowns. Say it's initially a remote database hit to some "City/State" tables, it returns a small amount of data, it changes infrequently (The US has had 50 states for the last half-century), so it's read many times but not prone to stale data.
What is a bad candidate for caching? Pretty much, the opposite of the good criteria.
Pitfalls with caching
Merely creating the dictionary isn't the problem. The problem will be integrating it (seamlessly) into your data persistence layer, and then ensuring the cache doesn't become stale - especially across a distributed environment - and then making sure it actually improves your performance instead of degrading it.
Stale data is the bane of caching. There are at least a few ways to deal with stale data:
- Apply a time-out policy such that all data expires after N minutes, but that won't be acceptable for most scenarios.
- If your app is changing the data (such as updating a details page), then have the DAL method (that calls the update SQL) also ping the cache to clear the stale object. This requires that your application somehow keeps track of which objects depend on which piece of data. It works great with a domain model, which requires more design upfront, but can have huge payoffs.
- If someone else is directly changing the database, such as a DBA running ad-hoc SQL in production, then consider providing some admin console that lets them clear segments of the cache. For example, if the DBA did a mass-update of all salaries, then have the admin page allow you to flush all salary-related objects out of the cache. This requires some infrastructure for tagging each cached object (perhaps a master config file), and discipline from the DBA to check that admin page.
- Beware of "database cache dependencies" (ASP.Net 2.0?), that claim to let you apply triggers to the database table, and then automatically clear the appropriate cache items when a specific row/column is updated. I've personally never gotten this to successfully work, have heard lots of horror stories (especially when deploying it across a DMZ), and it forces the domain design into the database instead of the middle tier. Although I'm all ears to anyone who's had a success story here.
Some other things to keep in mind:
Where should my cache tie in? Ideally, you'd want the backend cache abstracted via your dataAccess layer. This becomes very feasible with CodeGeneration. Whether data is pulled from cache or the live database is just a tuning option. Just like you don't want to put in-line SQL throughout your codebehind pages, you probably don't want to tightly-couple all your UI code to your cache provider. The frontend cache can be referenced in your UI, but again, be aware of too much plumbing code that "designs you into a corner".
Only temporary - A cache is not a persistent data store, it is not merely a "mirror" to scale out your database, as you must account for the cache being cleared. A data access method should always have a means to recreate the cached data.
- Why use a remote cache? If both the cache and database servers both have remote hits, what's the difference? In its simplest form, this helps scale out the database (which is usually a bottleneck). Every hit on the cache is one less hit on the already-overloaded database. Even after the remote hit, the cache can have a much faster lookup time because while the cache stores a created object, the database may still need to query 1 million rows to collect the data.
Control Panel - You'll want to provide an easy way to flush the entire cache, or even segments of the cache, without restarting any servers. It's also great moral support to have a statistics page showing how many thousand (million) database calls have been spared.
Configuration - You'll want to provide a way to configure almost everything: the cache durations, what category of duration (short, medium, long), which objects get cached, and perhaps even turn off the entire cache for emergency troubleshooting. Caching is something that you want to tune based on actual production results. Ideally control of what gets cached is all abstracted to a few easy-to-manage config files. You do not want these config values hard-coded throughout your app.
Beware of over-caching - If done the wrong way, caching can actually screw your performance. Say you cache something that is continually obsolete, so instead of just doing the normal database hit, you continually also need to do the extra cache query.
Good things to read
There's an endless list of info on caching. Here are some that could be useful.
- The Pragmatic Programmers have a whole book on caching with memcached! (I've personally used Memcached before, and liked it.)
- MSDN: Caching Architecture Guide for .NET Framework Applications
- Enterprise Library Caching Application Block
Yes, there's ton more that can be said about caching. Again, this is just a quick brain dump.